Virology is the thought of viruses and virus-like agents, including (but not limited to) their taxonomy, disease-producing properties, education, and genetics. It is often considered a bit of microbiology or pathology. In the early years, this method was dependent upon approaches in the chemical and physical sciences, but viruses soon became instruments for probing basic biochemical methods of cells.
Viruses have traditionally been viewed in somewhat negative circumstances as agents effective for the disease that must be controlled or eradicated. However, viruses also have certain advantageous features that can be exploited for beneficial purposes (for example in gene therapy or vaccinology).
Characteristics And Classification of Viruses
Following the initial operational description of a virus as a filterable agent, struggles were made to identify properties of viruses that isolated them from other microorganisms. The single defining characteristic of all viruses is that they are obligate intracellular molecular parasites.
A second inviolate characteristic of viruses is that they do not reproduce by binary fission – a method of asexual propagation where pre-existing cells split into two equal daughter cells. For viruses, the method of reproduction is akin to an assembly line in which different parts come together to create new viral particles.
In general, viruses contain only one variety of nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA) that carries the information required for viral replication. Nevertheless, it is obvious now that some viruses contain other nucleic acid molecules; for example, in retroviruses, cellular transfer RNAs are fundamental for the action of the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
The chemical composition of viruses differs between different virus families. For the simplistic of viruses, the virion is composed of viral structural proteins and nucleic acid, but the position becomes more complicated with the hidden infections. The latter types of viruses are maturing by budding within another cellular membrane that are altered by the insertion of viral proteins.
Several properties should be examined most important in constructing a scheme for distribution of all the viruses: the quality of the nucleic acid present in the vision, the proportion of the protein shell, dimensions of the virus particle and appearance or absence of a lipid membrane.
The International Committee on Viral Taxonomy (also known as ICTV), which was entrusted the responsibility of promoting a universal taxonomic scheme for all the viruses, has emphasized the viral genome (which is a blueprint for creating new infections) as a basis of all classification decisions.
In Virology journal it is named that informal virus taxonomy, families, subfamilies and genera are forever written in italic format, with the first letters of the names obtained. Instead of regular names (e.g. Parvoviridae), common names are often used for viruses, even in the medical literature (e.g. parvoviruses).
Study of Viruses
Even from the beginning times, it was clear that the filterable agents could not be cultivated on unnatural media; this particular characteristic has endured the test of time. Virus isolation in cell culture is still recognized as the gold standard against which other assays must be connected.
Still, the most straightforward method of virus detection and identification is a primary visualization of the agent. The morphology of most infections is sufficiently characteristic to identify the image as a virus and to consign an unnamed virus to the adequate family. Furthermore, certain non-cultivable microorganisms can be detectable by electron microscopy.
The culture of animal cells typically requires the use of culture factor containing salts, glucose, vitamins, amino acids, antimicrobial drugs, barriers and (usually) blood serum which provides a source of essential cellular growth factors. For certain cell-lines, described serum-free media had been developed, which contain particular growth factors.
Serological tests are used to show the appearance or absence of an antibody to a specific virus. The presence of antibody designates exposure to the agent, which may be due to a current clinical condition or to an earlier unrelated infection. Some examples are hemagglutination, wholeness fixation tests, radioimmunoassays, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoprecipitation and Western blot assays. Apart from virology journal you can also opt oncology journal for better information.